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A multi-stakeholder workshop

This is how a Theory of Change for Tanzania's five year Multisectoral Nutrition Action Plan looks like when a group of over 30 stakeholders work hard together over five days - a fantastic result. Now the real hard work begins to implement it.  In the last 5-10 years the ToC approach has become a popular tool for planning social change processes, especially in the NGO sector. The fast spread of the methodology has created different interpretations and understanding of ToC’s value. Some see it as a new Logical framework, yet more flexible and realistic. Some see it a simple logic model driven by cause-effect logic. Others give more importance to the attitudinal features of the approach which helps one bear in mind the complexities involved in contributing to social change and development. Our understanding is heavily informed by different authors’ interpretations such as Retolaza (2011) and Eyben (2006) and especially influenced by our practice and experience in making sense of it in our work with northern and southern NGOs’, and CBO’s, programmes. We highlight the opportunity ToC frameworks get social organisations focused on learning about how change happens, to achieve greater responsibility and accountability to both donors and end recipients of their programmes.




  • WHY: To harmonise the different components of the National Multi-sector Action Plan and to make explicit clear pathways on how to fight stunting and reduce malnutrition in Tanzania.
  • WHO: Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre
  • WHAT: Facilitation of a 4 days multi-stakeholder workshop on Theory of Change and Complexity
  • HOW: A different range of participatory tools was utilised during the process, including embodied learning, reflective practice and constellation work
  • WHERE: Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
  • WHEN: June – July 2016

Tags: multi-sector, Theory of Change, multi-stakeholder, reflective practice


"I keep six honest serving-men
 (They taught me all I knew);
Their names are What and Why and When 
 And How and Where and Who."

-Rudyard Kipling